news (external)

C@SScot 15: Using SOLAR for Unit and Assignment Verification

EdCompBlog by David Muir - Sun, 2015-11-08 00:19
Raymond Simpson: Using SOLAR for Unit and Assignment Verification
Live capture

Unit assessments already on SOLAR. Pupils complete answers in screen, or can upload documents that demonstrate they have completed the outcomes.

Pupils can be given an assessment record, when the pupil has the evidence, they upload it. However, don't assume SQA have access to all kinds of software - better to take and submit screenshots. {Or PDF?} Unit and course assessments for Nat 5, Higher and Advanced Higher all there on SOLAR.

Location:Old Hawkhill,Dundee,United Kingdom

C@SScot 15: Opening Keynote

EdCompBlog by David Muir - Sun, 2015-11-08 00:06
C@SScotland Conference - Keynote: Dr Iain Martin, University of Dundee
How Can You Test an Autonomous Planetary Lander?
Live captured

{Biggest attendance at C@SS conference so far. Reflecting a growing interest in Computing or confidence in our subject?}

University of Dundee has a space technology centre which collects and archives loads of data. Among other things, they have a space systems research group which looks at designing autonomous planetary landers. Computational Thinking underpins their work.

Problem Analysis:
Major task and very difficult to prove you can do it. Very high stakes, many possible reasons it can fail and very expensive to try. The lander has to be able to land autonomously (time delays and limited knowledge of what you are landing on!). You have to balance amount of fuel needed for manoeuvring and landing with the sensors and science stuff you want the lander to carry. The lander will need ”a whole bunch of sensors" to detect position and hazards. Cameras are a low cost, lightweight sensor (with no moving parts - a good thing!). Need to process the images. Difficult to prove the tech works. Best Mars landing so far is MSL which still had a 6km landing eclipse - would really like to get better! One way of testing is to create simulated data. This is difficult. Comparison was made with Apollo 11 mission. Landing site was Boulder strewn but Armstrong was able to steer to a plain just beyond the crater with seconds of fuel left!

{Loads more stuff showing how Computational Thinking underpins major engineering projects like this but I occidentally deleted it. Oops!}

Playing with Trinket

EdCompBlog by David Muir - Sat, 2015-11-07 23:13
Trinket is an online code development environment. You can create and run python programs, html/css, blocks (Scratch-like programming environment), music, and something called Glow-script (creates 3D stuff). I can't see how to save html stuff, but it says you can embed them. If that's right, here's a knock, knock joke:


You can save python programs... and this might embed a simple ASCII art example:


Will need to play more with Trinket to see what else it can do.

Growth Mindsets

EdCompBlog by David Muir - Thu, 2015-04-30 00:27
[Notes taken from a podcast of a chap from Chew Valley talking about how they had introduced ideas around growth Mindsets to staff and pupils.]
Growth Mindset verses Fixed Mindsets.

Click graphic to see larger version. 

Based on the work of Carol Dweck
See also TED Talk: The Power Of Belief - Mindset And Success (Eduardo Briceno). 
Mantra according to some is: Work smarter, not harder.Change this to: Work harder to get smarter
Motivational posters from Chew Academy: see this PowerPoint.
Shift in language. Listen to what you say to yourself: Instead of... Try saying... I'm not good at this. What am I missing? I'm brilliant at this. I'm on the right track.  I give up.  I'll try a different way. This is too hard.This is going to take time and effort.   I can't do this.  I'm going to learn how to do this.  I'll never be as clever as her.  I'm going to learn how she does it, so I can too.  It's not good enough.  How can I improve it?
Every teacher needs to improve, not because they are not good enough, but because they can be even better.”-- Dylan William
[End of notes.]
CommentI am intrigued by the "shift in language" table. The second line is interesting because the "Instead of..." entry is the only positive statement in the column. It suggests that pupils who are doing well can still have a fixed mindset. They may be succeeding but could they be even more successful. It seems to me therefore that there should be more positive statements in this column. For example, the second last row could be: 
 I'm cleverer than her. I could be even more clever.
What do you think? Could any others be adapted like this? Or can you think of any new, positive entries that could be added?

MSc Computing for Educators - C@SS Conference

EdCompBlog by David Muir - Sat, 2014-11-22 18:00
Alison Varey
(Live capture of session)

Practice based MSc from Napier aimed at teachers. Credit given for work based activities.

Also talked about student placements in schools and the the Christmas lectures they offer.

Location:Colinton Road,Edinburgh,United Kingdom

STEMNet

EdCompBlog by David Muir - Sat, 2014-11-22 17:53
Gus McSkimming, STEMNet
(Live capture of session)

STEMNet seeks to enrich and enhance. To encourage young people to be excited and interested in Science, Technology, engineering and Mathematics.

There are STEM clubs in schools and STEM Ambassador programme. Examples of STEM related activities include CoderDojo. (See activities page for more examples.)

STEM Advisory Networks already work in all Scottish schools (including Independant sector?) Ambassadors come from many different sectors. There to support teachers not replace them. A free resource on offer to schools that give applications in our subject in the world outside education.

Location:Colinton Road,Edinburgh,United Kingdom

3D Visualisation Technologies in Medical Imaging - C@SS Conference

EdCompBlog by David Muir - Sat, 2014-11-22 17:38
Steven Reynolds, Toshiba

Medical imaging scanners allow clinicians to look inside their patients without having to cut them open! One of the the oldest forms of this technology is the 2D X-Ray. Today, essentially all digital. It has the advantage of being cheap and fast.

Computer Tomography (CT) uses X-Ray emitter and detector on a spinning gantry to produce slices of data.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) good for looking at soft tissue (brain, fat tendons etc.

Ultrasound uses an ultra-sound transmitter. PET uses radioactive tracer to detect what is happening inside.

Realtime X-Ray can be used to guide other procedures.

Many of these techniques can generate lots of data but can be difficult to interpret 2D images to build up a model of the subject. Computer technology can help. The Toshiba team use C++, C# and many other computing tools to process the data and help doctors understand it. They render the data to generate 2D images from 3D and 4D data.

Cybercrime, the Scottish Perspective - C@SS Conference

EdCompBlog by David Muir - Sat, 2014-11-22 17:09
Stephen Wilson, Detective Superintendent, Police Scotland
(Live capture of session)
Government rate cybercrime and cyberterrorism as a tier 1 threat, up,there with major national disasters and international military conflicts.

What does cybercrime mean? Two aspects: old crimes "enhanced" by the Internet (e.g. theft, fraud, extortion and child abuse); new crimes created by the Internet (e.g. Ddos and malware). There are regular attracts on Scottish businesses. It used to be that organised crime had to be based near their victims but not now, so Russian groups and other nationalities are targeting Scottish people.

Mikko Hypponen on TED Talk: you are more likely to be a victim of crime online than in the real world.

Growth in ransomware (e.g. the heartbleed virus). But cyber attacks are not always about the money. There is state sponsored attacks as well as hacked sits are a growing threat. We need to educate people about basic safety. Problems with social networking, for example cyber-blackmailing or cyber-bullying which has led to suicides.

Hacktivism: question was asked, what are we doing wrong that people with outstanding computing skills would rather cause chaos and get involved in crime rather than use their skills in well-paid employment.

Crime as a service: people selling credit card details, or offering Denial of Service attacks et. As a service you can buy.

The police know they need highly trained and computer skilled people coming into the police, or partnering with them, to tackle these problems. But Stephen thinks we need to start educating children from primary up to take care of their own personal cyber safety. We need to encourage young people to move into tertiary education to study and research cyber security issues. There is an opportunity to grow cyber security as a business in Scotland.

As people spend more time in the virtual world, the police need to work to promote safer virtual communities. Does cyber security have enough prominence in school curriculum. Can pupils go and help parents and grandparents to be safer online?

Location:Colinton Road,Edinburgh,United Kingdom

Introducing Arduino - C@SS Conference

EdCompBlog by David Muir - Sat, 2014-11-22 15:58
Frank Greig, Napier University and friends
(Live capture of practical session)

Arduino: System on a Chip, Microcontroller (MCU) and Single Board Computers

Cost of an Arduino <£20. Tools such as Processing and Fritzing are free. Components (e.g. Breadboards, LEDs etc.) are cheap. Community support abundant. Should be up and running in 20 minutes.

Fritzing allows you to draw the diagrams to set up exercises. Open source, free download. Code development: can get a version of Scratch for Arduino which acts as a good transition into Arduino C code.

During session, I did manage to get blinking LED within a few minutes. This what I like about control. You write some code (software that exists in the magical world of the computer) but control technology makes stuff happen in the real world. Somehow I find this stupidly exciting! (And that's a good thing!)

We added a resister to the breadboard but good advice was to solder the resistor onto the LED.

Moved onto switching an LED on and off by covering up a photocell sensor. When it got dark, a light came on. Again, stupidly satisfying! After this, we saw a Bluetooth modem attached to an Arduino and a Bluetooth terminal app that can send serial data over Bluetooth. The chap from Napier then controlled a line of LEDs from his phone - phone controlled Christmas tree lights.

Some really nice video lessons on what you can do with sensors (e.g. £1 range sensor used to measure colour and position).

Location:Colinton Road,Edinburgh,United Kingdom

HTML & CSS - C@SS Conference

EdCompBlog by David Muir - Sat, 2014-11-22 13:19
Colin Maxwell, Adobe Generation

From the blurb: Big Picture, Little Picture – A different approach to teaching coding with HTML, CSS and Javascript, with examples you can take away and use in your own classroom. Includes an introduction to Adobe Brackets, the brand new and totally free code editor.

{Live capture}

(Colin is doing an online JavaScript programming course and has invited us to leave him details so we can join.)

The stuff he is talking about is on his blog.

Good source of information is Adobe Education Exchange; codeacademy (partnered with Education Scotland to produce material inline with Scottish curriculum - coming soon); webmaker (from Mozilla - can save and share work); Code.org (hour of code activities etc.).

Colin also recommended Brackets - an open source code editor which supports live HTML development, code hinting, JavaScript debugging, extensions for Python... And it runs from a pen drive (no problems with installing on school machines). He introduces HTML with a simulated hacking exercise - guess a four digit PIN. Showed how brackets highlights the HTML code when you click on the elements in the web page. First form just hardwires the PIÑA into the HTML. Second iteration uses CSS, so PIN not in HTML, it is in a file. Introduces external files and style sheets. Again, you can click on the code and the web page changes. For example, click on a colour code, change it and the web page changes.

Colin says he got the idea from a Micro Adventure book e.g. Space Attack, where you read a story where you had to write code to solve problems and move to the next bit of they story. Colin keen on the idea of using stories to move learning along. Another example is a CSS zombie/drone game. CSS positioning is used to place objects. One person has to write CSS a to position objects in a room. Second person then blocks the windows and doors - about 12 minutes for the whole exercise.

Offline activity from the webmaker site. Web page includes some simple elements, a story, perhaps a table and some CSS. Cards contain HTML elements which are dealt out to pupils who then have to play them in order to build up the page.

HTML 5/JavaScript game coding webinar starts this Tuesday2 December from 7pm-8pm. Starting with a simple platform game - give them it complete and let them hack it!

How do we talk about Computing? - C@SS Conference

EdCompBlog by David Muir - Sat, 2014-11-22 12:46
Quintin Cutts
{Live capture}

We have things and processes and we try to work out what are the key characteristics. The key characteristics is information. We use this information to model the process and then there is reasoning: how well does the model match the process?

Things
Processes
Characteristics
Information
Modelling
Reasoning

Almost any computing activity fits into these levels. For example, a plan for a program is in one sense a model.

In science, we are encouraged to model and test. Newton saw the apple fall and developed a model which has been tested and developed ever since. But in school, we assume the model and teach it as true. In comparison, in Computing when we build and test a program, we are doing real science - just like Newton. Could argue that school Computing does more real science than school Science does!

Quintin then told us a story... Talked about the Industrial Revolution where people made machines to to replace a specific task, usually replacing something that people used to do. (Replacing muscle power with machine power.) Different machine for each task. If you didn't have a machine, your industry died. (For example, linen was more important than cotton but the cotton chaps worked out how to mechanise the production.) Digital Revolution replacing general purpose brain with general purpose programmable machine. The machine stays the same the software changes.

Other Sciences are beginning to see the value of Computing: the breakthroughs are coming from computational modelling rather than mathematics.



Location:Colinton Road,Edinburgh,United Kingdom

Keynote 2 - C@SS Conference

EdCompBlog by David Muir - Sat, 2014-11-22 11:34
Kirsty McFaul, HMIe
{Live blog}

Look out for Technologies Impact Review (TIR) report due to be published soon. Loads of reports, forums and evidence: we have to use this evidence to move forward successfully. Professional Leaning (e.g. PLAN C) is key to moving forward. Need to look at how research can be embedded in practice. How do we gather data on the impact of interventions in classrooms? Personal learning should be... "technologically ubiquitous". {Sounds interesting but I will need to think though what it means.}


Location:Colinton Road,Edinburgh,United Kingdom

Keynote - C@SS Conference

EdCompBlog by David Muir - Sat, 2014-11-22 11:16
Elizabeth Montgomery - HMIe
{Live capture}

Computing Science: realising the potential

Why do people think Computing Science is only about ICT? Is the only defining element programming? If Computing is about transforming the world, why are numbers taking Computing falling?

Inspection and Review
May not be inspected by a Computing specialist but idea is to support self-evaluation. (Up to us as Computing specialists to explain what we are doing and why?) HMIe use a package called insight (spelling?) which is a great example of Computing Science in action - creates a virtual school that makes comparison and contrast easier.

The Future Of Computing
Vision of Computing Science is growing and developing. Google Computational Thinking and you will be overwhelmed by the academic research in this area ("Not just doing a bit of programming."). Real potential to grow and develop. Need to look at our unique selling point.

Change Management
Looking Inwards - Looking Outwards - Looking Forwards
How do we hook children into Computing. Example given of a school where the hook was animation and gaming but need to look for what works in our school. Computer Science can change the world... but there is a decline in Computing in schools. A decline in presentations at the senior level. What column is Computing placed in? How is it valued in schools? How is it valued by universities?

Time of austerity and funding of Computing is problematic given drop in education funding. Evidence that children, particularly in Primary, are not getting their entitlement. HMIe report about to be published will highlight these issues and make suggestions about how to move forward.

Looking for Computing Science to be valued and well understood. Not just valued for Computing industry but across many areas. Computing industry contributes £3 million to Scotland's economy.

Location:Colinton Road,Edinburgh,United Kingdom

C@SS Conference Welcome - Welcome

EdCompBlog by David Muir - Sat, 2014-11-22 10:53
Quintin Cutts, University of Glasgow
{Live unedited capture}

Wider picture:
PLAN C - funding coming to an end but plans afoot to keep the contacts going and growing;
Draft Education Policy - looking to develop a policy for 3-18;
International interest - other countries are looking to Scotland;
Review of Assessment practices;
Scottish Forum for Computing Science Education;
And more.

Still issues, for example falling numbers of Computing Teachers. The places are there but universities finding it difficult to fill the places.

Location:Colinton Road,Edinburgh,United Kingdom

National Cipher Challenge 1A

EdCompBlog by David Muir - Wed, 2014-10-15 09:44
The National Cipher Challenge is an annual event organised by the University of Southampton.

Cipher Challenge LogoThis is the second year teams from our school have had a go at the competition. We have a keen but young group of pupils and I hope that by exploring how the ciphers could have been solved after the answers have been published, we will have a better prepared team ready to tackle next year's challenges.

Also, I thought this blog would be a good place to consider some of the educational benefits of tackling competitions like this. So here is how I solved Challenge 1A. I'll follow up in the next day or so with a consideration of the computing and maths skills that could be developed through cipher cracking activities.

The first challenge was pretty straightforward. The cipher text given was:

QEVO,

XLEROW JSV FVMRKMRK QI MR SR XLMW SRI, WIIQW PMOI E JEWGMREXMRK GEWI.

M LEZI XLVII UYIWXMSRW:
ALC ASYPH XLI JPEK HEC EWWSGMEXIW AERX E WLMT?
ALC ASYPH XLIC AERX XLMW WLMT?
ALC ASYPH XLIC AERX XLMW WLMT RSA?

LEZMRK VIEH XLI EXXEGLIH HSGYQIRX M WYWTIGX XLEX XLI ERWAIVW EVI EPP
VIPEXIH XS XLI UYIWXMSR SJ ALEX IBEGXPC WLI ERH LIV JPEK HEC EWWSGMEXI
GVIA AIVI XVCMRK XS WYVZIC.

M EQ KYIWWMRK XLEX CSY EPVIEHC GLIGOIH SYX XLI SRFSEVH KTW WCWXIQ JSV
MRJSVQEXMSR EFSYX LIV QSZIQIRXW, FYX MJ CSY HMH JMRH ERCXLMRK M ASYPH
FI JEWGMREXIH XS LIEV EFSYX MX. MR XLI QIERXMQI M EQ TVIXXC WYVI XLEX
CSY ORSA QSVI EFSYX XLI JPEK HEC EWWSGMEXIW XLER CSY LEZI XSPH QI, WS
E FVMIJMRK ASYPH FI QYGL ETTVIGMEXIH.

EPP XLI FIWX,

LEVVC
The passage looked like a letter between Harry and Mark (two people named in the introductory text related to the challenge) so an obvious crib presents itself if you guess that QEVO at the start of the cipher text is Mark and that LEVVC at the end is Harry. This suggests the following substitutions:




A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z


.
.
y
.
a
.
.
.
.
.
.
h
.
.
k
.
m
.
.
.
.
r
.
.
.
.



(Note: from now on I will adopt the convention of showing Cipher text in capital letters and plain text in lowercase, even to the extent of showing proper names like "Harry" as "harry".)

Substituting these letters into the cipher text gives you:

mark,XhaRkW JSr FrMRKMRK mI MR SR XhMW SRI, WIImW PMkI a JaWGMRaXMRK
GaWI. M haZI XhrII UYIWXMSRW: Ahy ASYPH XhI JPaK Hay aWWSGMaXIW AaRX
a WhMT? Ahy ASYPH XhIy AaRX XhMW WhMT? Ahy ASYPH XhIy AaRX XhMW WhMT
RSA? haZMRK rIaH XhI aXXaGhIH HSGYmIRX M WYWTIGX XhaX XhI aRWAIrW arI
aPP rIPaXIH XS XhI UYIWXMSR SJ AhaX IBaGXPy WhI aRH hIr JPaK Hay
aWWSGMaXI GrIA AIrI XryMRK XS WYrZIy. M am KYIWWMRK XhaX ySY aPrIaHy
GhIGkIH SYX XhI SRFSarH KTW WyWXIm JSr MRJSrmaXMSR aFSYX hIr mSZImIRXW,
FYX MJ ySY HMH JMRH aRyXhMRK M ASYPH FI JaWGMRaXIH XS hIar aFSYX MX. MR
XhI mIaRXMmI M am TrIXXy WYrI XhaX ySY kRSA mSrI aFSYX XhI JPaK Hay
aWWSGMaXIW XhaR ySY haZI XSPH mI, WS a FrMIJMRK ASYPH FI mYGh
aTTrIGMaXIH. aPP XhI FIWX, harry
(Note: to make it easier to process in the spreadsheet I used to help me crack this cipher, I removed the extra lines, effectively turning it into a single paragraph, but otherwise left the punctuation and spacing intact.)

You now have a choice to make:
  1. You can look at the partially deciphered text to see if any further substitutions suggest themselves. For example, the three letter grouping XhI appears many times in the text. Since "the" is a very common three letter word, there is a good chance that X=t and I=e. Similarly, the letters Ahy appear three times, which means A is probably w. Substitute these letters and then look at the text again. Keep looking for recognisable words and guessing letters until you have decoded the whole message.
     
  2. In this case, the easier option is to guess what kind of cipher was used and see if your guess is right by trying it out on the cipher text. Since we have guessed that E=a, we could further guess that Mark and Harry are using a Caesar cipher where plain text letters are moved forward four places to get the cipher text letter. So a goes to E (b to c to d to E - four places). Use your code wheel, set A to E and check if the other letters we have chosen match our guesses. You should see that the guesses match all round the wheel. That is r goes to V (s to t to u to V - four places) and y goes to C (z to a to b to C) etc.
What ever method you choose, you should be able to decipher the rest of the message and read:

mark,

thanks for bringing me in on this one, seems like a fascinating case.

i have three questions:
why would the flag day associates want a ship?
why would they want this ship?
why would they want this ship now?

having read the attached document i suspect that the answers are all
related to the question of what exactly she and her flag day associate
crew were trying to survey.

i am guessing that you already checked out the onboard gps system for
information about her movements, but if you did find anything i would be
fascinated to hear about it. in the meantime i am pretty sure that you
know more about the flag day associates than you have told me, so a
briefing would be much appreciated.

all the best,

harry
So, Challenge 1A solved. Before going on to solve Challenge 1B, the next post will talk about the spreadsheets I developed to help crack the ciphers.


Computer News

EdCompBlog by David Muir - Wed, 2014-06-25 15:59
A former colleague told me about Weekly Computing News where, once a week, she shared some technology related news item with her Computing classes. I thought this was a brilliant idea and so shamelessly ripped it off when I started my new job here at the High School. I did fairly well for a year but it fell apart this session and I only made it up to Christmas before dribbling to a halt. Determined to do better next session, I thought I would try to get a couple in before the end of term.

I used to print out the presentation and post it outside my classroom ("print out"? How old fashioned!) but I realised if I converted it to a Google presentation, I could post it on our VLE. As an added bonus, I thought I could post it on my blog too (another much neglected project) and therefore hopefully manage at least one post a week through the school term.

So here is the first of the blogged Computer News items from session 2014/15:



As part of the presentation, there is a link to a BBC page with a short video which I showed in class as well as speaker's notes which give a bit more detail. There are also two QR code links at the end which give my primary sources. (The links are a BBC news report and an article from Wired magazine.)

Let me know what you think of the idea and/or the news item chosen. Would you like to see more?

Location:Crow Road,Glasgow,United Kingdom

Computing Science Conference: Hacking HTML, CSS and JavaScript

EdCompBlog by David Muir - Thu, 2014-05-29 16:06
Live notes from Education Scotland's Computing Science Conference
#HigherCS

Colin Maxwell

Useful websites are:
Codecademy (Colin's favourite) - great for getting yourself up to speed and for pupils to set practical homework as no special tools required.

w3schools.com - not as interactive as codecademy but good reference site.

webmaker.org - from Mozilla. The x-ray goggles is good but start with Thimble. Similar to codecademy with tutorials but the advantage is you can save and share what you create.

All three of these are great because all you need is access to the Internet. Possible to do it with some fairly basic tools: web browser (Chrome preferred) and a text editor (Notepad++, Brackets, Sublime, ...)

Brackets is free, open source. It does Live HTML Development, supports JavaScript debugging (with Theseus extension) and loads of other extensions (e.g. Extension that provides colour palette to choose hex colour codes or "beautify" code).

How do we teach HTML? Colin started teaching programming by getting pupils to hack code. Start by giving web pages for them to hack. Example given of a web page that asks for a pin code then flick backwards and forwards between the code and the page. Get pupils to identify how the different parts relate to each other. Start with JavaScript version of a simple PIN code form then same form but using CSS to code it. You can show how style is improved and extra functionality added. Can open the JavaScript file and the CSS file alongside HTML file. This approach let's pupils see the completed jigsaw puzzle rather than just giving them the bits and no picture.

Colin then went on to show editing a web page in bracket. bracket lets you open all the files in a folder and shows them in a side bar for easy navigation. From a teaching point of view, you can zoom the text in a window, highlight lines and do live update of a web page. Set pupils tasks like change a grade, add a person don't tell them how, let them work it out. Makes it more than a "monkey see, monkey do" exercise.

CSS
Set tasks to place objects (Colin uses zombies) using div to place graphics - house a png which can have transparency (for windows and doors) and zombies as gif because they can be animated. Place the zombies in the windows and doors. Uses layers to get zombie inside house. Then give file to another pupil who will stack crates in front on the windows - again using div and layers.

Went on to show JavaScript game using JavaScript library called enchant. Again, hacking an existing page to do things like change frame rate and sprite being animated. The enchant library much easier to use than many. Colin uses JavaScript as his main programming language.

Ran out of time but check his blog for more.


Computing Science Conference; PLAN-C

EdCompBlog by David Muir - Thu, 2014-05-29 14:08
Live notes from Education Scotland's Computing Science Conference
#HigherCS

Programming: Teaching Standard Algorithms - Peter Donaldson

Visualising Hidden Mechanisms
Lots of hidden mechanisms in Computing. If pupils do not have an understanding of these mechanisms (only seen examples or relying on intuition) they will struggle. Showing examples is not enough. Must have a causal model or there can be "random twiddling" to try and fix problems. Watching a process helps but it is not enough. Often programming gives too much work for eyes and not enough work for the brain. You don't have to be a genius to program, you just have to develop an understanding of what the computer does when it is given an instruction.

How do we do that currently? Diagrams e.g. Boxes for variables or use debugger to inspect variables and trace an execution of a program. Use actual boxes and get pupils to put things in the boxes. (An aside was how do you read an assignment statement? Not read left to right or how do you make sense of total = total + 1?) interactively model the process of writing code - start with a blank page and build the code up a line at a time rather than starting with example programs.

Other suggeststions: draw a flowchart of a program; draw structure diagram; trace table/debugging tools; step through program and asking "what happens next...". There are limitations of all these approaches. Each approach contributes something but often need to teach new ways of describing when they are still getting their heads round coding. Is the cart before the horse teaching design notation before they understand coding?

Example was given of using a paper table to trace through a program. Started by identifying expressions (i.e. something that generates a value).



Teachers answer was:



Next draw arrows to show the flow of control:



Finally, hand execute the program with the input 20, 7, -1 (put the step numbers beside the arrows - makes it easier to see when things happen). Fill in changing variables in a table and show the expression being evaluated at each stage too. Work in progress:



So our final trace looked like this:



Using the "Expression evaluator" box makes pupils' understanding of what is going on clear.

But research shows there is a strong correlation between the ability to trace the flow of a program and the ability to produce code.

Location:Grosvenor Street,Edinburgh,United Kingdom

watch Online English Movies Free: Dui bu qi wo ai <b>ni (2009</b>)

- Sat, 2014-01-25 10:32
Saturday, 25 January 2014. Dui bu qi wo ai ni (2009). pMovie: strongDui bu qi wo ai ni/strong/ppspanimg align=left style=margin-top: 5px;margin-bottom: 5px;margin-left: 3px;margin-right: 20px ...

U-KISS ?Man Man Ha <b>Ni??2009</b>?11????M COUNTDOWN <b>...</b>

- Mon, 2014-01-13 02:49
U-KISS ?Man Man Ha Ni??2009?11????M COUNTDOWN??? ?Mnet Satellite ???? ??????GyaO! ?????????????????????????????????????GyaO!

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