news (external)

Affordable Learning at Scale With OER

Online learning update by Ray Schroeder - Sun, 2015-11-08 01:09

By Dian Schaffhauser, Campus Technology

Gerry Hanley has a vision. He wants to plant a big thermometer on California State University Web sites to show how much money students are saving by not having to buy traditionally published textbooks or ancillary resources. His rough estimate: As of a few years ago, learners at the 23-campus, 460,200-student university system were spending $300 million a year on course materials — about $651 per student per school year. His goal is to cut that in half, and he believes the result will be higher graduation rates and better quality of education. “If I could save 50 percent for students, that’d be great,” said Hanley, Cal State’s assistant vice chancellor for academic technology services and executive director of MERLOT (Multimedia Educational Resource for Learning and Online Teaching).

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UMUC president reimagines analytics with dramatic success

Online learning update by Ray Schroeder - Sun, 2015-11-08 01:05

By Meris Stansbury, eCampus News

It’s called the Office of Analytics at University of Maryland University College (UMUC), and it began with the vision of President Javier Miyares, who wanted to not only unlock the potential of institutional data across multiple areas, but turn the data into a profit for the college. “The problem is most presidents have heard the word but don’t know how to execute,” explained Miyares during a session at last week’s EDUCAUSE 2015. “We have less than 10 percent of revenue coming from the state and had a 50 percent decline in enrollments in 2012. We had to cut 60 million from the budget and fire 300 people, and that’s when we knew we had to take what we had left and invest in the priority: analytics.” Darren Catalano, the Vice President of Analytics for UMUC, says “Our approach is to demonstrate the “art of possible” to the institution,” said Catalano; “in other words, to make complex data simple.” According to Miyares, there are 5 lessons in leveraging analytics to deliver what’s possible.

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Audaciously yours – Udacity scripts a new story for skill makeovers

Online learning update by Ray Schroeder - Sun, 2015-11-08 01:02

by Udacity

Fact – India has the largest population of software developers, outside of the US, at 3 million. By 2018, this number is estimated to increase to 4 million – making India a country with the largest number of software developers. Fact – And yet, with such large numbers of software developers, there are only 2% of apps developed in India that make it to the top 1000 Google apps and none to the top 100. Industry Experts in India believe the reason behind this seems to be due to the options available in the ecosystem of upgrading skills once a student finishes his basic degree and enters the job market. As a first in India, Udacity has collaborated with the tech giant Google. The company believes this service model of job training can be scaled up to teach coding to millions of people. For India, additionally, there is a definitive price advantage as well. The discounted price for India is Rs. 9,800 per month. This compares favorably with the US where it costs $200 a month.

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C@SScot 15: Using SOLAR for Unit and Assignment Verification

EdCompBlog by David Muir - Sun, 2015-11-08 00:19
Raymond Simpson: Using SOLAR for Unit and Assignment Verification
Live capture

Unit assessments already on SOLAR. Pupils complete answers in screen, or can upload documents that demonstrate they have completed the outcomes.

Pupils can be given an assessment record, when the pupil has the evidence, they upload it. However, don't assume SQA have access to all kinds of software - better to take and submit screenshots. {Or PDF?} Unit and course assessments for Nat 5, Higher and Advanced Higher all there on SOLAR.

Location:Old Hawkhill,Dundee,United Kingdom

C@SScot 15: A Deep analysis of N5 and H Computing Science

EdCompBlog by David Muir - Sun, 2015-11-08 00:09
A Deep analysis of N5 and H Computing Science - Bill Buchanan
Live capture

 Most science graduates go into software engineering... eventually! {Stated as fact - I would be interested to see some evideence to support it! - DDM}

 The Internet of things means that the Internet is going to get bigger.

 Looking at the Bright Red Digital Zone site. Ask pupils which subjects they are studying: Computing is 6th most popular - behind French. In terms of engagement, Computing is 2nd - after Business Studies. Most logins from pupils are in January. Site designed in Visual Studio. Uses cloud services (e.g. French area uses Microsoft translation services).

C@SScot 15: Opening Keynote

EdCompBlog by David Muir - Sun, 2015-11-08 00:06
C@SScotland Conference - Keynote: Dr Iain Martin, University of Dundee
How Can You Test an Autonomous Planetary Lander?
Live captured

{Biggest attendance at C@SS conference so far. Reflecting a growing interest in Computing or confidence in our subject?}

University of Dundee has a space technology centre which collects and archives loads of data. Among other things, they have a space systems research group which looks at designing autonomous planetary landers. Computational Thinking underpins their work.

Problem Analysis:
Major task and very difficult to prove you can do it. Very high stakes, many possible reasons it can fail and very expensive to try. The lander has to be able to land autonomously (time delays and limited knowledge of what you are landing on!). You have to balance amount of fuel needed for manoeuvring and landing with the sensors and science stuff you want the lander to carry. The lander will need ”a whole bunch of sensors" to detect position and hazards. Cameras are a low cost, lightweight sensor (with no moving parts - a good thing!). Need to process the images. Difficult to prove the tech works. Best Mars landing so far is MSL which still had a 6km landing eclipse - would really like to get better! One way of testing is to create simulated data. This is difficult. Comparison was made with Apollo 11 mission. Landing site was Boulder strewn but Armstrong was able to steer to a plain just beyond the crater with seconds of fuel left!

{Loads more stuff showing how Computational Thinking underpins major engineering projects like this but I occidentally deleted it. Oops!}

IMS Caliper published – we now have a clearer picture how activity streams should be described

OLDaily by Stephen Downes - Sat, 2015-11-07 20:32

Tore Hoel, Learning Analytics Community Exchange (LACE), Nov 07, 2015

Discussion of the recently published IMS Caliper specification. Caliper describes the method to encode and transfer clickstream data - that is, a recording of each action taken by a user (click of a mouse, press of a keyboard). This data iss especially useful for user interface design. Note that this is not the same as the IMS Caliper RAM (Real-time Analytics Messaging) specification “ to implement real-time, actionable messaging alerts” . which has changed its name to IMS HED Analytics group. The article also raises questions about the interoperability between IMS Caliper and ADL's xAPI (Experience API). "One of the first tweets   with the #imscaliper hash tag after the publications read 'consider current disparity between #xapi & #imscaliper, interoperability standards that don’ t interoperate'."

[Link] [Comment]

Playing with Trinket

EdCompBlog by David Muir - Sat, 2015-11-07 17:25
Trinket is an online code development environment. You can create and run python programs, html/css, blocks (Scratch-like programming environment), music, and something called Glow-script (creates 3D stuff). I can't see how to save html stuff, but it says you can embed them. If that's right, here's a knock, knock joke:

You can save python programs... and this might embed a simple ASCII art example:

Will need to play more with Trinket to see what else it can do.

Online classes bringing U of I money during budget crisis

Online learning update by Ray Schroeder - Sat, 2015-11-07 01:07

By Amanda Porterfield, Illinois Home Page

The University of Illinois is making cuts as the state continues to operate without a budget. They’re also making additions that will help bring in more money. It’s typical for U of I students to cram as many credits into two semesters as they can. University officials say it was such a success this year they’re offering 17 credits, predicting the online semester will bring in about a million dollars.

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The quest for demonstrable outcomes

Online learning update by Ray Schroeder - Sat, 2015-11-07 01:03
by  David Schejbal, e-Mentor There is a buzz, even a frenzy, about competency-based education (CBE). Brought together by the Lumina Foundation-sponsored organization C-BEN (the Competency-Based Education Network), 30 institutions and 4 university systems have developed or are developing competency-based programs. About another 600 schools have claimed to be developing CBE programs, though there is no accurate data to substantiate that number. Why and why now? To understand the reasons for the interest in CBE in the U.S., it is important to understand the broader context that is significantly impacting higher education1. As with most things, one primary driver is money. Share on Facebook var button = document.getElementById('facebook_share_link_15815') || document.getElementById('facebook_share_icon_15815') || document.getElementById('facebook_share_both_15815') || document.getElementById('facebook_share_button_15815'); if (button) { button.onclick = function(e) { var url = this.href.replace(/share\.php/, 'sharer.php');,'sharer','toolbar=0,status=0,width=626,height=436'); return false; } if ( === 'facebook_share_button_15815') { button.onmouseover = function(){'#fff'; = '#295582'; = '#3b5998'; } button.onmouseout = function(){ = '#3b5998'; = '#d8dfea'; = '#fff'; } } }

The user as network

OLDaily by Stephen Downes - Fri, 2015-11-06 23:25

Karen E.C. Levy, First Monday, Nov 06, 2015

Karen Levy argues for "conceptualizing users as networks: as constellations of power relations and institutional entanglements, mediated through technologies." She argues that a model regarding people merely as users or non-users is too simplistic (I have to agree). As an example, she writes, "The market for Nexafed seems nonexistent in traditional use/non-use terms, but when we construe the user more broadly — as a network of interpersonal, legal, and institutional relationships, consisting of multiple modes of relation between people and technology — not only does the drug’ s market make sense, but we also understand how new motivations (social shame, mistrust, robbery, gossip) can act as salient drivers of technology use." It's not just the person who uses the drug that is implicated in the drug's use. "We have considered the user as a network of power relations that includes parents and children, pharmacies and pharmacists, neighbors and communities, regulators and legislators, police and thieves. Comparatively, conceptualizing the user or non-user in social and institutional isolation yields a thin and unnuanced understanding of Nexafed’ s use."

[Link] [Comment]

Adjust course fees so that those who will earn more will pay more

OLDaily by Stephen Downes - Fri, 2015-11-06 23:25

Dean Machin, Times Higher Education, Nov 06, 2015

I've heard this silly argument about tuition fees on numerous occasions before, and the practice - known as 'differential fees' or a 'differential fee structure' - is actually in place in some colleges and universities. The proposal is that "Fee caps that reflect the relative economic returns of different course choices would help students make more informed decisions." The intuition here is that students should pay a fee based on a percentage of the benefit they receive. But the argument is also place in a context of risk: the university should assume some of the risk inherent in teaching low-value programs, like philosophy and dramatic arts.

But of course this is ridiculous (and not only because of the 'institutional conservatism' that is the author's straw man objection). It presumes that future earnings are the only benefit the institution and society receive from offering a course, which is absurd. And why would 'risk' be segmented according to course and program. Many other factors effect earnings. Maybe women should be charged lower fees because they earn only two thirds of what men earn. Perhaps people from  Nottingham should pay almost nothing. Perhaps left-wingers should receive lower fees because they're much more likely to join non-profits like Medecins Sans Frontiers. Let's represent this proposal for what it really is: yet another scheme to increase tuition fees (and incidentally, to favour the upper class white men who already dominate access to the higher-paying professions).

[Link] [Comment]

Welt-Diabetestag am 14.11.2015

Gesundheitsberichterstattung - Fri, 2015-11-06 23:00
Ausgewählte Informationen zum Welt-Diabetestag am 14.11.2015
Categories: Science News

The Case for Free Access to Higher Education

OLDaily by Stephen Downes - Fri, 2015-11-06 17:24

David Wheeler, Academica, Nov 06, 2015

It's always nice to read of an executive officer at a Canadian educational institution calling for free and open access to learning. It's also far too rare. But here we have just such an instance.  Cape Breton University president  David Wheeler makes the case for establishing universities as a public good. "If Canada wishes to maintain national competitiveness and labour mobility even as we maximise the entrepreneurial spirit, civic engagement, and life chances of our youth, a new social contract will be required," he writes. That would be good. I didn't have any say in the last social contract, and it left me - and millions of others - thousands of dollars in debt. 

[Link] [Comment]

Analysis and Support of MOOCs

OLDaily by Stephen Downes - Fri, 2015-11-06 08:22 (Stephen Downes), Half an Hour, Nov 06, 2015 My contributions to the Network Learning 'Hot Seat' addressing the question, "How do we analyse and support the networked interactions of thousands of people learning together?" View the whole discussion here.
# # # These are two very different questions and I'm not sure it's useful (or even appropriate) to ask them together. With respect to the analysis of the networked interactions, it's not clear to me that we should even be doing this, at least, not in the sense suggested by the question. If someone had said "how do we analyze the conversations of university students one to another" or "how do we analyze the thousands of phone calls between people" we would quite rightly question the breach of confidence required to undertake such a task, beyond very gross calculations about the numbers of calls and conversations (and even then, we're treading on dangerous grounds). One of the differences between mass courses (at least the way I see them) and more traditional forms of online learning is that students discussions are not automatically located in the LMS not subject to ownership and use by the institution. I'll leave discussion of the second point until later. # # # @jonathanbishop I would be more inclined to say that Etienne Wenger was drawing some the same foundational concepts as George Siemens and I, though I was aware of Wenger's work as far bacl as 2004 (you can hear me mispronounce his name through this entire presentation, the first I ever recorded, from 2004 ) The ideas of connectivism, communities of practice, etc., are derived from a network view of the world, and are rooted in ideas of network theory, 'small pieces loosely joined', the computational theory of connectionism, and the work of people like Francisco Varela, Paul and Patricia Churchland, Stephen Kosslyn and J.J. Gibson. It has been occasionally suggested that MOOCs have their origin in the work of Ivan Illich. I'm sympathetic with his view, but his work has no influence on the development and design of either connectivism nor the MOOC. If people must credit someone writing specifically in the educational domain, then I would say I was far more influenced by John Holt's How Children Fail. But for me, the origins are from the scientific and philosophical domain, not from educational theorists or social scientists. # # # Connectivism is another neologism. It is essential Barry Wellman's work from the 80s and 90s with the rhetoric of Vygotsky, and indeed Ivan Illich. No it isn't. Wellman is interested in the formation and definition of community, and social network theory. This work is interesting, but is not the same as connectivism, which is a theory about knowledge and learning. What you'll find in connectivism, but not in Wellman: - 'to know' is to be organized in a certain way, as in a set of connections (such that 'to know x' is to recognize x) - 'to learn' is to to grow, adapt and change that organizations, ie., to grow and shape connections Contrast with Wellman, who when he talks about knowledge, talks in information-theoretic terms, such as 'knowledge transfer' or 'knowledge mobilization'. He depicts networks as conduits of knowledge, rather than as instances of knowledge. Finally, though I am indeed the person who coined and described e-learning 2.0 (based on the earlier concept of web 2.0) I am not trying to "sell" it, or MOOCs, or connectivism. People can decide for themselves, based on the evidence, whether any of these concepts has any merit. # # # I see MOOCs as "Closed Educational Resources" for the reason that they are stand alone, unlike say SCORM packaged learning objects. This may be true for xMOOCs. It is certainly not true for the cMOOCs George Siemens and I created. Indeed, you could attend one of our MOOCs from beginning to end without even visiting the platform, solely through the use of syndication technologies like RSS. Moreover, our MOOCs were not in one place, like an xMOOC, but were distributed across a web of connections linking students resources, OERs from multiple locations, groups and conferences, and more. [Link] [Comment]

What Else can Work at Scale? and Techniques from Social Media

OLDaily by Stephen Downes - Fri, 2015-11-06 08:22 (Stephen Downes), Half an Hour, Nov 06, 2015 My contribution to the Networked Learning Conference 'Hot Seat' discussion. You can read the whole discussion here.
# # # Anything that can be automated works at scale. Anything that cannot be automated must be distributed, and if so, works at scale. Only centralized non-automated things do not work at scale. # # # This is a good question: "Humans scale, and have scaled before any automation existed, so what made us scale? Localized transmission of knowledge (oral tradition), the automated cell/gene replication in combination with adaptations? " And I think that the answer is inherent in the nature of life: that we are autonomous, and interactive, so we create a distributed network of diverse activities, adapting to local conditions, and scaling naturally. Life seeks conditions of success. Humans, crickets, birds, plants - we migrate to the places where we flourish and avoid the places we don't, each making our decisions one by one. Too dense a network and society fails. Too sparse a network and society fails. Autonomy is productive; eliminate it and society fails. But where autonomy is extended to point where it disrupts the network, society fails. (These aren't truisms; they are empirical observations, and subject to verification.) # # # Also, comments from the thread titled 'Educational Designers and Techniques from Social Media'. I have argued that the design for MOOCs should take more from games than from social media (though there are some pretty strong overlaps), including in a talk just last week3. My point was that instead of trying to design learning, which is focused on content, we should create environments in which people can practice. Social media is a bit like an environment. It is a space (mostly) not bounded by structured presentation of material or decision trees (Facebook's stream is an oft-criticized exception). People are able to try out new ideas and new personals. The problem with social media is that the interaction is (mostly) limited to conversation. I would much rather see people interact by solving problems, figuring out puzzles, playing games, and creating things. # # # Again, I have not clearly stated my point. I use games as a metaphor to talk about MOOCs: There are two types of games: - those that depend on programmed design and memorization, and - that create an environment.where players and objects interact In the same way, there are two types of MOOC: - those that depend on programmed design and memorization - xMOOC - that create an environment.where participants and objects interact - cMOOC The first type of game was a failure. They could be defeated by mere memorization and were not interesting. They disappeared from the market. The second type of game was a success, and should be used as a model for MOOCs (and indeed, were a part of the model George and I used when we developed cMOOCs). So this second type of games is the type of games I am talking about. When comparing this second type of games and social networks, I agree with you that there are many elements in common. They are both environments, they are based on the interaction between participants, and they can be used to solve problems, negotiate and communicate. But there are also some important differences: games are inherently about solving problems or responding to challenges, while social networks can be much more typically involve a wide range of different types of objects (even objects in the physical world) while social networks involve conversational elements only.This not to say that we must choose between either games or social networks. Both inform the theory of environmentally-based learning, where participants interact in a common space with objects and with each other. But it is to say that a model based on social networks alone will be insufficient to inform the design of successful MOOCs. The elements of a successful networking environment need to be taken into account. Because, yes, the connections are of the utmost importance. We cannot learn from each other without connections. But the manner, organization and structure of those connections must be designed with the intent of creating the most interesting and accessible environment. People will learn from each other, not from the MOOC. # # # I don't agree with this: "It's important what the discussion is about, what the goal of the discussion is..." I think there is too much desire on the part of educators to shape the learning of individuals. We should see our function as more supportive than directive. # # # You say: "The content - or the concrete problem - should be the center in dialogue for learning." And yet: "not that this should be determined by the instructor/teacher/facilitator." Two things: First, I don't think both things can be true. If you are going to say something should be the case in learning, then you cannot say that it should not be determined by the instructor/teacher/facilitator. Second, there are many cases wher this need not be the case. Where someone is learning merely for pleasure, for example (which explains how I acquired a knowledge of the Roman Empire). Or where different people are working on different problems, not a common problem. [Link] [Comment]

Role for Educators in MOOCs

OLDaily by Stephen Downes - Fri, 2015-11-06 08:22 (Stephen Downes), Half an Hour, Nov 06, 2015 My comments to the Networked Learning Conference 'hot seat' on the role of educators in MOOCs. Read the full discussion here.
# # # At the risk of self-reference, I'd like to contribute to this discussion by pointing to something I wrote on the role of the educator a few years ago - The Role of the Educator - which was based on a few talks, including We Don't Need No Educator. The point of these presentations is to say two things: first, that as the learning environment is reshaped by technology, it doesn't make sense to think of it as being provided by a single artisan manually performing a wide (and increasing) range of professional tasks; and second, that the role of the educator(s) is far more varied than one might think, even in the age of the MOOC. After all, it's not as though the one task of the educator was to present content, and it's not as though the educator disappears once a person begins to be able to manage their own learning and find and view resources for themselves. Rather, it means that the same number of professionals (probably more) can now begin to offer specialized services to a much larger number of people. # # # @hsp writes, "I have no issue with social constructivism per se, but I do have an issue with the relative and subjective knowledge that it can generate. It leaves room for groups of people to come to different conclusions based on the same facts." We've digressed a lot from the topic of 'the role for educators' but in an interesting and necessary way. And indeed, many of my discussions of MOOCs begin with a discussion of the nature of knowledge. Allow me to begin, though, by dividing the discussion into a practical thread and a theoretical thead: the practical matter of whether educators ought to see themselves as conveyors of authoritative knowledge, whether or not such knowledge actually exists, andthe nature of truth, and whether there are truths that can be known in an absolute sense, as opposed to the relativism described by @ZeroveWith respect to the second matter, I think that the net result of some 2600 years of philosophical enquiry into the nature of knowledge and truth is that knowledge and truth are at best relative to a community, a symbol system, a model, a perceiver, or some such non-global entity. It does not matter that "a further dialectic process towards a global understanding of facts" is hampered by this. [x] Arguably, this is beyond our reach - we could engage in the process forever, but never know whether we are even getting closer to a conclusion. We could discuss the state of knowledge and truth at length, but that might best be a separate thread. The practical question is whether, despite this, and for more pragmatic reasons, teachers out to be seen as conveyors of authoritative facts and knowledge. Several reasons have been advanced in the discussion this far: it may be the case that students are unable to learn unless facts and knowledge are presented in this way, ie., there are pedagogical reasons it may be the case that there are cultural reasons for presenting knowledge and information this way, ie., there are cultural reasonsit may be that the stability and prosperity of society as a whole may depend on a common understanding (or, if you read Rawls, agreement) on certain propositions, ie., there are social reasonsAgainst these arguments I offer my own proposition that social, pedagogical and cultural issues are better addressed by encouraging learner autonomy than by encouraging teachers to act as sources of authoritative facts and knowledge. first, it is arguable that students learn better if they are able to understand and reconstitute the knowledge for themselves, rather than having it distributed to them as already known and authoritative. There have been some recent discussions1 around the Common Core approach to mathematics that are illustrative of this. second, it is arguable that culture, rather than being harmed by a decline of authority, is actually strengthened by it. This is a long digression which I won't explore here, but a significant topic worthy of discussion.third, society as a whole is more stable if the ondividuals in it are viewed as autonomous, pursuing (as Mill says) "their own good in their own way". There has been a lot of recent discussion showing the quality of decisions and stability of social systems are increased when organized as networks of diverse autonomous members.One final note. We will not doubt touch on the distinction between 'authority' and 'expert'. The two are very different. The former represents a perspective that is imposed on the learner. The latter represents a perspective that is given weight by being recognized as such by the learner. Contrary to the perspective of cMOOCs offered in the paper cited by @Vivian below, the position of connectivists (or, at least, of me) is that while teachers should not take on an authoritative role, they can and certainly should function as experts. Their role is not merely to facilitate - that is a conflation of connectivism with constructivism. Their role is, to put in slogan form, to model and demonstrate. [x] In the same way the assertion that "we do not have wings" hampers our ability to fly. But no much it hampers our ability to fly, it does not follow that we have wings. # # # @Fleur_Prinsen I guess I would ask first of all why it is wrong for people to come to different conclusions based on the same facts. This is a very common phenomenon, and it is indeed this diversity of opinion that strengthens our own cognitive processes and the cognitive processes of a society as a whole. But also, secondly, I challenge the presupposition that there is such a thing as the "same facts". To my knowledge everybody experiences the world in different ways, and while there may be social and linguistic conventions concerning our shared experiences (eg., the sentence "Paris is the capital of France") even these are experiences by different people in different ways. What we call 'facts' are theory-laden representations of the world and experience, and are literally different depending on whether one believes in spiritual entities or not, on whether one believes in an underlying reality or not, on whether one interprets the perceptions as particles or waves. They vary from perspective and point of view, in significant and importance and relevance, in salience, and with reference to background knowledge, context or understanding. So I do not think that it is an objection that people come to different conclusions. I think it is a strength. # # # @jeffreykeefer Most of the research on 'theory-laden data' was actually done on research in the hard sciences. This slide show3 outlines some of the foundational work by people like Popper, Kuhn, Lakatos and Feyerabend to establish this. Even the nature of observations themselves, much less theoretical statements, are interpreted differently depending on one's theoretical perspective. This is important not because it puts astronomy and astrology on the same level - it doesn't - but because it corrects a persistent misunderstanding about the nature of knowledge and scientific theory. There is no 'foundation', there are no 'basic truths', no particular 'facts of the matter' carry a special status over and above the rest. Knowledge is not an edifice, construct, or canonical representation of the world. It is far more complex (and far more interesting) than that. A couple of examples, one from Lakatos, and one from my own writing: the Millikan oil drop experiment1 was one of the foundational moments in chemistry and physics. It involved dropping oil drops between two charge plates, measuring the effect of the plates, and deducing the value of the charge of a single electron. Previous efforts had attempted the same with water, but because the results were so fickle, Millikan employed oil instead. "The Millikan–Ehrenhaft contro-versy can open a new window for students, demonstrating how two well-trained scientists can interpretthe same set of data in two different ways." 'basic' mathematics. It has long been held that children should learn 'basic arithmetic', such as addition and subtraction, multiplication and division. But the selection of these as 'foundational' is completely arbitrary (and are not surprisingly challenegd by Collon Core). Mathematics itself may be thought to be based on a foundational set of axioms, such as are represented by Peano arithmetic1, based in the concepts of set theory, identity, and succession. Or perhaps we could employ Mill's methods1, which derive mathematics from as a set operations on a series of pebbles. In view of modern computation (and to help in their later understanding of modal logic) perhaps the core concepts taught ought to be transitivity, substitutivity, and symmetry. [Link] [Comment]

Online Courses Better Route than Public Funding To Cut College Costs

Online learning update by Ray Schroeder - Fri, 2015-11-06 01:11

By Dian Schaffhauser, Campus Technology

The delivery of online classes is viewed by most people as a way that colleges and universities are keeping expenses down for their students. In a recent survey, 65 percent of respondents identified those more than anything else a school can do to reduce student costs. The idea of backing public funding for education to lower tuition and loan costs was specified by only half as many (34 percent).

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Lack of Online Classes Leads Students to a Dead-End

Online learning update by Ray Schroeder - Fri, 2015-11-06 01:04

By University Times

College is an exciting and nerve racking time for students when it comes to learning. With a wide variety of subjects, students have a lot to ponder. However, when it comes to online classes, students have no idea where to look and are starting to ask questions. “I came from a Community College and the school had a lot of online classes to choose from. I work full time and coming to class at certain times doesn’t work for me,” said Cal State LA student Andre Flemming. While Cal State LA does offer a wide range of classes to attend, the online system just isn’t quite there. The CSU system only offers a few programs ranging from business to health professions at

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How Online Classes Can Help Your Career

Online learning update by Ray Schroeder - Fri, 2015-11-06 01:02

by Turner Cowles, Time

Want to get ahead in your career? Join the crowd. Fifty-two percent of Coursera students are taking online courses to improve their career, according to president and co-founder Daphne Koller. Of those students, 87% get benefits from online education, she says. “That benefit comes in many different flavors, some of them just find themselves doing better at their current jobs,” Koller says. At least 34% get what she calls a tangible benefit, like a raise, a higher paying job, or starting a new business. Employers are looking for more than people with more than just a specific skill-set; they’re also looking for people who are motivated self-starters.

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